Center for International Stabilization & Recovery

CISR envisions a world where people can build peaceful and prosperous futures free from the repercussions of conflict and disaster.

We help communities affected by conflict and trauma through innovative and reliable research, training, information exchange, and direct services such as:

Mine Risk Education
Peer Support
Management Training
Scientific Research
Who I Follow
Posts tagged "sudan"
Sudan and South Sudan are among the most heavily armed countries in the world. The Niles investigates how this came about and the consequences of spiraling bloodshed.

Sudan was awash with arms long before the country split in two. When South Sudan seceded in 2011, it was estimated that there were up to 3.2m small arms in circulation. Two-thirds of these were thought to be in the hands of civilians. Since then, arms have proliferated on both sides of the recently devised border – with fatal results.

In Sudan, a country often dubbed “Africa’s arms dump”, the number of arms is rising by the day amid armed conflict between government forces, paramilitaries, rebels, hired militia, foreign fighters, bandits as well as inter- and intra-communal warfare. This aggression is fuelled by the global arms trade and smuggling from neighbouring states.

A similar story is heard in South Sudan, where ownership of guns and small arms is estimated to have sharply increased during its three years as an independent nation, partly due to the number of rebel and militia groups that sprung up in Jonglei and Upper Nile states in 2010 and 2011. Arms are a common sight and ammunition can be bought for around US$1 per cartridge at some local markets.

Read more …

A company called Not Impossible Labs has come up with one of the best uses for 3D printer technology we’ve ever heard of: printing low-cost prosthetic arms for people, mainly children, who have lost limbs in the war-torn country of Sudan.

The project was the brain child of Mick Ebeling, founder of Not Impossible, a company dedicated to “technology for the sake of humanity.” Not Impossible is probably best known for its "Eyewriter" eye tracking glasses, created with free open source software, that helped a paralyzed graffiti artist draw and communicate using only his eyes.

Project Daniel started in 2012, when Ebeling read a story in Time magazine about Daniel Omar, a then 14-year-old Sudanese boy who lost both his hands from a bomb.



A man injured during tribal clashes that erupted in Jonglei State, sits in a hospital in Bor, South Sudan on July 15.

An explosion of land mine killed nine children and seriously injured five others on Saturday in Kassab area, Abukarshola locality in South Kordofan state, where serious battles were took place between the insurgents and Sudanese armed forces, medical sources and eyewitnesses disclosed to Africa review, a sister publication to the

Abukarshola has witnessed bloody fighting between the rebels of the Sudanese revolutionary front SRF and the Sudanese government last April. SRF has controlled the area since that time until the government could recapture it in May.

Read more …

I could not come up with a good, broad narrative for January in regards to landmines on the continent.  There is some very bad news from Mali and Algeria with reports of new landmine use by rebel groups and there is some very good news as Somalia, Angola and Uganda continue to make progress towards assisting survivors and clearing minefields.  However there is also a cautionary tale about the danger of tampering with landmines from Zimbabwe (in a story that if it were not true, no one would believe it) and from Angola a reminder of the legacy of Princess Diana which also, unwittingly, reveals the desperate state of landmine survivors there.  In between we also hear from Rwanda and the Sudans.


Whisper it, but the truth is coming out: Gaddhafi’s arsenal is in the hands of people that no government would want it to be in.  With so much focus by the United States on securing the anti-aircraft rockets known as MANPADS, the tens (if not hundreds) of thousands of small arms and explosives that Gaddhafi had stockpiled were allowed to be carried out of Libya in 2011.  An Islamist group seized control of a natural gas facility run by British Petroleum and Norway’s Statoil in Ain Amenas, Algeria holding dozens of hostages.  Using Belgian-made landmines spirited out of Libya, the militants set up defensive perimeters to try and slow down the Algerian forces that eventually overpowered and killed the militants (along with several hostages, others of whom were killed by the militants).  There is concern that if landmines and other weapons are in the hands of Islamist militants in Algeria, they could also be in the hands of others, including the rebels in Mali (The GuardianThe Associated Press). 

Read more …

South Sudan’s wheelchair basketball team did not become a full member of the International Olympic Committee, but the players still dream of competing.

JUBA, South Sudan — At a basketball court in South Sudan’s capital Juba, the national wheelchair team is still practicing hard - despite only a glimmer of hope that a select few will get a last-minute chance to compete in London’s upcoming Paralympic Games. 

Wheelchair-bound basketball players race around a court in the sweltering evening heat. The players bear the scars of the ravages of war and poverty: limbs lost to land mines and bomb shrapnel, or twisted by polio.

The decades-long civil war from which the new nation of South Sudan emerged in July 2011 left a legacy of some 50,000 disabled people.  It is why representation of the wheelchair basketball team in this year’s Paralympic Games is so important.

Read more…

CISR in Sudan 2012: A day in the life with Mines Advisory Group

This is how it is supposed to go, we thought, trudging into the fields and teak forest near our camp. 


On Sunday, we came to Yei from Juba with Mines Advisory Group. We had started this morning with a visit to a local school for a mine-risk education session. There, MAG risk-education leaders had taught lessons on safer behavior around mines and other threats. The children laughed, played along with the leaders and ended the session by singing a song with us: Mines, mines are danger. Whether you’re tall or short, fat or thin, mines are dangerous to us all. 

Our second stop was a risk-education session for a local community that had reported suspicious materials near its encampment. We traveled from the school to a gathering of tukuls a few hundred meters from the MAG compound on the Juba-Yei road. About 40 villagers—men, women and children of all ages—had requested that MAG come and share information on dangerous areas. Growth in Yei is visible all around—new tukuls and buildings crowd freshly cleared land everywhere. As populations move outward from the town center, land development uncovers new threats. 

When the session ended, community members approached the MAG community liaisons with further questions. One man held back for a while and then asked the question that would change our itinerary for the day: What could MAG do about the weapon he had found in his field?


So there we found ourselves, following the farmer and MAG community liaisons down the road and into the woods. Several hundred meters from the road, near the boundary of new agricultural area, the farmer pointed out a 60mm mortar shell in a termite hill. The MAG weapons-destruction team conferred, while the community liaisons gathered information from the farmer. We had lucked out—not only had the community liaisons solicited important reports of dangerous areas, but the MAG team could remove the threat that very afternoon. 

We returned to the dangerous area after midday. Eugene, MAG EOD Team Leader, conducted a security briefing for his team and our group. Sentries established a cordon to keep civilians (and animals) out of the area, while Eugene and his team prepared the demolition. As I had never initiated a demolition before, I got the honors. 

A short countdown, a big boom and it was all over. Most days the job is not flashy, but when it is, it really is. 

While MAG might normally have secured the unexploded ordnance and moved it for a large demolition, turning around on the munition in one day showed the community that MAG can be a trusted partner for safety and security. Although the mortar shell was a routine spot-clearance task for them, it was amazing to see the full scope of their work. And to think, it all started with a local farmer and community liaisons a few hours before. 

Soon, we will move a few kilometers out of the town center to the Norwegian People’s Aid compound. There, we will see its mine-detecting dog training facility and conduct field visits to minefield- and battle-area clearance operations. 

Happy trails, 


Geary Cox II (’06, ’08M, ’15P) is project manager and program coordinator at CISR. He joined the staff as an Editorial Assistant to the Journal of ERW and Mine Action in March 2005. He holds a Master of Arts in English and a Bachelor of Arts in English and political science, both from James Madison University. He is pursuing his doctorate in nonprofit leadership at JMU’s School of Strategic Leadership.

Walking into the UXO destruction site. SIMAS Director Jonas Anuar and JMU HD Fellow Katie Smith walking last. SIMAS field visit, Part 2… Wherein Katie blows things up

Our trip to the mine field [view previous post] was just the beginning of our field visit on Friday. We make a quick stop at a mechanical demining site along the banks of the Nile. Until recently, SIMAS lacked sufficient resources to outfit and maintain a mechanical demining team. The equipment allows them to clear land more rapidly and will be a critical component in clearing dangerous areas before the rainy season suspends operations.

We travel 2 kilometers southeast to the roadside control point for the unexploded-ordnance detonation site. Although deminers must blow up mines and UXO  sometimes in situ (in place), they greatly prefer moving the weapons off-site for a controlled detonation.

Eight mortar shells are partially buried in a pit and covered by sandbags. In a pit, set back safely from the road, the UXO team  placed sandbags over eight mortars and primed them with explosives. Zlatko handled weapons destruction in the aftermath of the Bosnian war. Every second day, the teams would have collected more than two tons of explosives. Our task would be significantly smaller: 25 kilograms in eight mortars.

Then the fun began: The field supervisor unwound det cord and set the charge. Our group took cover behind a small hut constructed with tree limbs and sandbags. Tradition holds that the sitting HD Fellow usually gets the honor of setting off the demo, so Katie got some quick instructions and the countdown began. Five… four… two… one… the field supervisor counted down into his walkie talkie, the numbers echoing out of everyone’s radios behind the hut. Zero… fire…

SIMAS field supervisor prepping the detonation. BOOM. Katie screamed and then giggled. The rest of us laughed as debris, carried by the explosion and wind, fell nearby. Just like that, we were finished.


SIMAS is an amazing success story in a landscape of frustrated efforts. The first nongovernmental organization in South Sudan to receive international accreditation for its demining teams, SIMAS receives funding and support from the U.S. Department of State’s Office of Weapons Removal and Abatement (PM/WRA), the United Nations and other organizations. It partners with UNICEF to deliver mine-risk education and can conduct manual and mechanical clearance as well as UXO spot clearance.

I have a keen interest in resource development for indigenous NGOs, so our conversation back at SIMAS headquarters during lunch and after was fascinating. The organization has an engaged and well respected board that has helped SIMAS establish strategic objectives. Jonas, the director, said that they are constantly asking, “If international organizations withdraw, where are we going to be?”

CISR Project Manager Geary Cox ('06, '08M, '15P) with JMU HD Fellow Katie Smith ('09) and PM/WRA Program Manager Emma Smith Atkinson ('09) at entry point for UXO storage and destruction area. To help plan for this, SIMAS develops its teams leaders and office personnel. Should funding become available, SIMAS deminers are accredited to high enough levels that operations can rapidly expand. The organization has also received superlative remarks on all three of its independent audits, building confidence for donor countries and organizations.

Plans are also in the works to build a sustainable infrastructure into the HQ compound. Solar panels on an accommodation building and other improvements could mean SIMAS no longer has to buy fuel to run generators and other equipment, and the accommodation block would reduce costs and increase income.

SIMAS team with visitors from JMU and Dept of State. Director Jonas Anuar standing far right. FSD Technical Advisor Zlatko Gegic stands fourth from left. I will return to CISR and JMU with a head full of ideas on possible collaboration with this amazing organization. As a student of NGOs, I am perhaps most excited about what more I can learn from Jonas and his team.

It is Saturday evening as I write in Juba, and a number of soccer (yes, soccer—they have not won me over to football just yet) matches are on the hotel bar’s TVs. We have a BBQ scheduled at Embassy-Juba later tonight before heading to field sites in Yei tomorrow morning. I will update as I can.

Happy trails,


Geary Cox II (’06, ’08M, ’15P) is project manager and program coordinator at CISR. He joined the staff as an Editorial Assistant to the Journal of ERW and Mine Action in March 2005. He holds a Master of Arts in English and a Bachelor of Arts in English and political science, both from James Madison University. He is pursuing his doctorate in nonprofit leadership at JMU’s School of Strategic Leadership.

CISR in Sudan 2012: SIMAS field visit, Part 1

It is Friday morning, and we sit 16km south of Juba on the site where a car full of people were all killed in 2008. Four or five people (accounts vary) were riding along unmarked roads in the outskirts of the capital when they struck an anti-tank mine. The burned and rusted bumper of the car lies a few meters behind us, in the place where it was thrown by the blast. That same year, two local boys were killed by another AT mine while playing in the bush about half a kilometer away.

The weather is warm (95 degrees Fahrenheit) with a merciful breeze rustling through the stunted trees and scrub. In under a month, the rainy season will begin and continue until October. Lush grasses taller than most men will cover the field where we sit, and demining work will have to be suspended. That gives the South Sudan Integrated Mine Action Service (SIMAS) teams little time to finish their work here.

Founded in 1999, SIMAS is the only internationally accredited nongovernmental organization in South Sudan. Its director, Jonas Anuar, sits to my right during our safety briefing. Before us, John Michael, a SIMAS demining team leader and today’s field-visit supervisor, explains the area map and marking posts.

John Michael tells us that, before the civil war for South Sudan’s independence, this area was a village. In the early 1990s, this area was fought over by the Sudan People’s Liberation Army and the Sudan armed forces. Located along the River Nile on the southern approach to Juba, it had strategic importance for both sides.

The armed forces laid several AT mines to prevent encroachment from the rebel forces, and the area had a high contamination from unexploded ordnance, abandoned bombs and mortars. Now, after years of fighting and two serious landmine accidents, no one will return.

SIMAS has worked here since February 2011, toiling for more than a year despite funding and weather delays. Thus far, they have cleared 56,872 square meters of land (about 5.5 percent of the total dangerous area). That leaves 1,023,128 square meters (94.5 percent) to be cleared. SIMAS teams hope to finish by the end of April 2012, before the rains begin. This seems paradoxical—five percent in one year, 95 percent in one month—until you realize that all land to this point was cleared by hand. By using mechanical demining on the remaining, less dangerous areas, SIMAS can speed the process.

To this point, deminers have worked on their hands and knees for hours a day, prodding and carefully excavating soil near suspected mines and unexploded ordnance. To make matters worse, as the dry season wears on into January and February, deminers must water each patch of ground they work. Without watering, the ground is too hard to probe properly—the hard soil could give way at any moment, causing their probes to detonate a mine inches away.

John Michael and Jonas lead us until the field, and we are joined by Zlatko Gegic, a technical advisor from the Swiss Foundation for Demining (FSD) who has worked with SIMAS for the past two years. Our boots crunch the trimmed stalks of river grasses and scrub brush, winding down warn paths in the hard, dry soil.

Everything is painstakingly labeled here, from the boundaries of the cleared areas to the medivac site, the control point and the metal-detector testing point. We pass the ‘resting area,’ where the deminers take a break in the shade. There are not enough sets of personal protective equipment (PPE, blast-shielded overalls and visors) for everyone, including our visiting party. The deminers had to give up some of their light blue PPE and stop demining while we visit. They did not seem to mind.

Villagers selected this area for demining and contacted the South Sudanese government to request it be a priority. The rich river soil is prime for agricultural production, and the capital is growing swiftly outward. On our drive from Juba this morning, Emma remarked at how quickly the city had grown since her last visit in December 2010. Zlatko says that Juba is the fastest growing capital city in the mid-Africa belt, if not the entire continent. Communities of hastily built huts and shacks line the roads leading from the city, and everyone only expects a further influx given instability in the northern counties.

Much remains to do and see on our visit, including a controlled detonation of UXO down the road (Katie gets to prime and detonate the explosion), which will come in another post. We wriggle out of the PPE and hand it back to their owners—the deminers have to get back to work.

Happy Trails,


Geary Cox II (’06, ’08M, ’15P) is project manager and program coordinator at CISR. He joined the staff as an Editorial Assistant to the Journal of ERW and Mine Action in March 2005. He holds a Master of Arts in English and a Bachelor of Arts in English and political science, both from James Madison University. He is pursuing his doctorate in nonprofit leadership at JMU’s School of Strategic Leadership.

CISR in Sudan 2012: Step 1—Decide on Step 1

Everywhere you look in Juba, something is under construction. Driving in from the airport this afternoon, buildings stood (or not) in such various states of construction that it was impossible to tell what was going up and what was coming down. 

This sense of perpetual transition suffuses everything. Even at dinner, when a technical adviser from the German military spoke with Emma, Katie and I about disarmament and security-sector reform, there were serious questions about prioritizing activities. If you knew that weapons stockpiles needed better security and that community-disarmament efforts still bring in huge amounts of uncontrolled weapons, which would you pursue: a few large-scale projects to build armories or many small-scale improvements (fences, locks, inventories) of existing facilities? And what about training of staff? And the development of standard operating procedures? And coordination between government departments and agencies?

Difficult decisions were raised, and everyone we met in our few hours on the ground was focused on one thing: helping the South Sudanese people make the best decisions for themselves under a short timeline. Even the advisers and nongovernmental-organization workers are in a state of perpetual transition. The longest billet I have heard of thus far is 17 weeks, which, when you think about it, is not that long at all to rotate in, conduct assessments and advisements, and rotate out. Most people are working on more limited time. 

Our meetings start in earnest tomorrow, which will be a great opportunity given our short time here, too. There was only one snafu in the whole 27-hour adventure to get here: We arrived, but our luggage didn’t. No matter. As you can see from the picture of our walk back to U.S. Embassy-Juba, Emma and Katie are carefree. 

Happy trails,

P.S.: One of the things we did during check-in was pick call names for Emma (Duke Dog) and Katie (Dolley). I did not get one, but there is still time before we head to the field. Make your suggestions on the Facebook page, and we’ll see what works out. 

CISR in Sudan 2012: Six shots, one visa

Confidential to all: I am afraid of shots, heights, flying, large bodies of water and cats. With the exception of that last item, I’m going to have to confront all of these Tuesday for my trip to the Republic of South Sudan.

I mentioned in a previous post the excitement of visiting the world’s newest country and CISR’s colleagues and friends there. Unfortunately, we only received our passports/visas for travel to South Sudan, so some quick changes to our itinerary are in order. We’ll depart Tuesday, 20 March and have more time for field visits with Mines Advisory Group, Norwegian People’s Aid, the Swiss Foundation for Mine Action (FSD) and local partners.

Maybe the pure excitement of travel and not my crippling fear of needles had me in a cold sweat last week at the local Department of Health. Instead of getting the one immunization for which I had come (yellow fever), the nurse gave me two additional shots (polio and meningitis). Her suggestion of a fourth (influenza) was a non-starter; I’ll take my chances with that one.

In all, I’ve had six immunizations over two doctors’ visits and a typhoid vaccination protocol that came (mercifully) in pill form. I also have a baggie of malaria pills to take (daily, with milk or food) beginning two days prior to departure and continuing a week after we return.  The tedious rules about vaccinations (yellow fever at least 10 days before departure but not with the typhoid protocol, which takes seven days total) and anxiety over travel notwithstanding, we’re pretty much going to have the time of our lives.

As for my fear of cats, it’s still early.  We may always see some lions.

Happy trails,


Geary Cox II (’06, ’08M, ’15P) is project manager and program coordinator at CISR. He joined the staff as an Editorial Assistant to the Journal of ERW and Mine Action in March 2005. He holds a Master of Arts in English and a Bachelor of Arts in English and political science, both from James Madison University. He is pursuing his doctorate in nonprofit leadership at JMU’s School of Strategic Leadership